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 | Resource efficiency | Flow efficiency | Management | The focus with agile is on delivering business value as a smooth flow. This may mean that the best thing for people to do is not to be busy the whole time. Traditional management focuses on "resource utilization" which often means you reduce the flow going through the system because of context switching and contention for scarce people or resources. | | Resource efficiency | Flow efficiency | Management | The focus with agile is on delivering business value as a smooth flow. This may mean that the best thing for people to do is not to be busy the whole time. Traditional management focuses on "resource utilization" which often means you reduce the flow going through the system because of context switching and contention for scarce people or resources. |
 | Large annual bets based on plan | Multiple small actively managed bets based on reality | Management | Traditional approaches to implementing an organization plan is to do a yearly plan, and then determine if we meet the plan. The agile approach assumes we have plans, but they are smaller, more regularly reviewed so we can more easily adapted based on the changing business situation. See [[why_should_we_start_without_doing_a_complete_analysis|Why Should We Start Without Doing a Complete Analysis?]], [[what_is_the_effect_of_batch_size_on_how_long_something_takes_to_get_done|What Is The Effect of Batch Size On How Long It Takes to Get Something Done?]]. This leads to ... | | Large annual bets based on plan | Multiple small actively managed bets based on reality | Management | Traditional approaches to implementing an organization plan is to do a yearly plan, and then determine if we meet the plan. The agile approach assumes we have plans, but they are smaller, more regularly reviewed so we can more easily adapted based on the changing business situation. See [[why_should_we_start_without_doing_a_complete_analysis|Why Should We Start Without Doing a Complete Analysis?]], [[what_is_the_effect_of_batch_size_on_how_long_something_takes_to_get_done|What Is The Effect of Batch Size On How Long It Takes to Get Something Done?]]. This leads to ... |
-| "Fixed" business case | "Conditional" business case | Management | See previous comment, [[blog:why_doesn_t_traditional_project_management_work_for_software_projects|Why Doesn't Traditional Project Management Work For Software Projects?]] and [[blog:how_can_we_understand_the_real_value_of_fast_feedback_and_deciding_late|How Can We Understand the Real Value of Fast Feedback and Deciding Late?]] |+| "Fixed" business case | "Conditional" business case | Management | See previous comment, [[why_doesn_t_traditional_project_management_work_for_software_projects|Why Doesn't Traditional Project Management Work For Software Projects?]] and [[how_can_we_understand_the_real_value_of_fast_feedback_and_deciding_late|How Can We Understand the Real Value of Fast Feedback and Deciding Late?]] |
 | Efficiency | Effectiveness | Management | According to Peter Drucker "efficiency is doing things right; effectiveness is doing the right thing." He then adds "There is nothing so useless as doing more efficiently what should not be done at all." With agile idea is to focus on business efficiency (delivering value) even at the expense of technical efficiency. | | Efficiency | Effectiveness | Management | According to Peter Drucker "efficiency is doing things right; effectiveness is doing the right thing." He then adds "There is nothing so useless as doing more efficiently what should not be done at all." With agile idea is to focus on business efficiency (delivering value) even at the expense of technical efficiency. |
-| "Project Management" | "Agile Portfolio Management" | Management | The agile approach is less about setting up and meeting project plans, and more about the continuous flow of features / value and "validated learning". See [[blog:why_doesn_t_traditional_project_management_work_for_software_projects|Why Doesn't Traditional Project Management Work For Software Projects?]] for more information. For an interim step see [[how_does_project_management_change_with_agile|How Does Project Management Change with Agile?]] |+| "Project Management" | "Agile Portfolio Management" | Management | The agile approach is less about setting up and meeting project plans, and more about the continuous flow of features / value and "validated learning". See [[why_doesn_t_traditional_project_management_work_for_software_projects|Why Doesn't Traditional Project Management Work For Software Projects?]] for more information. For an interim step see [[how_does_project_management_change_with_agile|How Does Project Management Change with Agile?]] |
 | "Command and control" management | "Servant leadership" and "empowerment" | Management | For knowledge work we want to leverage the abilities of our people and not assume management knows best. | | "Command and control" management | "Servant leadership" and "empowerment" | Management | For knowledge work we want to leverage the abilities of our people and not assume management knows best. |
 | "Iron triangle is scope, cost and schedule" | "Iron triangle is value, quality and constraints (scope, schedule, cost)" | Management | Traditional projects pretend that you fix two sides of the iron triangle so the third is variable. Reality is that quality suffers when the project is under pressure. Agile assumes quality is required, that we focus on value and there are constraints in how we get there. | | "Iron triangle is scope, cost and schedule" | "Iron triangle is value, quality and constraints (scope, schedule, cost)" | Management | Traditional projects pretend that you fix two sides of the iron triangle so the third is variable. Reality is that quality suffers when the project is under pressure. Agile assumes quality is required, that we focus on value and there are constraints in how we get there. |
 | Solution focus - "Bring me solutions, not problems" | Problem focus - "Bring me obstacles" | Management | Idea is that management are seen as place where problems are brought and worked aggressively to resolution. | | Solution focus - "Bring me solutions, not problems" | Problem focus - "Bring me obstacles" | Management | Idea is that management are seen as place where problems are brought and worked aggressively to resolution. |
-| "Do it right first time" | "Fail fast" | Management | Why fail fast? Would you prefer to find out that we went in the wrong direction at the end of the project, or close to the beginning? Traditional approaches mean you only find out at the end of the project that there is a problem. See [[blog:how_can_we_understand_the_real_value_of_fast_feedback_and_deciding_late|How Can We Understand the Real Value of Fast Feedback and Deciding Late?]] |+| "Do it right first time" | "Fail fast" | Management | Why fail fast? Would you prefer to find out that we went in the wrong direction at the end of the project, or close to the beginning? Traditional approaches mean you only find out at the end of the project that there is a problem. See [[how_can_we_understand_the_real_value_of_fast_feedback_and_deciding_late|How Can We Understand the Real Value of Fast Feedback and Deciding Late?]] |
 | "Best practices" | "Relentless improvement through experimentation" | Management | Best practices only work when the problem you are dealing with is simple. Most software projects, since we are inventing something that hasn't been done before, is more like "new product development" so it is a "complex" problem, not a simple or even complicated problem. This means a continuous "experimental" approach is required to improve how we work. | | "Best practices" | "Relentless improvement through experimentation" | Management | Best practices only work when the problem you are dealing with is simple. Most software projects, since we are inventing something that hasn't been done before, is more like "new product development" so it is a "complex" problem, not a simple or even complicated problem. This means a continuous "experimental" approach is required to improve how we work. |
 | "Phase gate reporting" | "Reporting based on working software" | Management | Traditional software development approaches report based on stage gate milestones and intermediary deliverables of documents (eg we completed this set of documents therefore we are X% complete). The problem with this approach is that you are reporting progress when no software is running. Worse because you have increasingly detailed planning based on existing assumptions, your plan moves further and further away from reality. The agile approach is to only report progress when some (even the tiniest sliver of the) functionality is working and potentially available to the user. And as Dantar P. Oosterwal says “There was in fact no correlation between exiting phase gates on time and project success. The data suggested the inverse was true."| | "Phase gate reporting" | "Reporting based on working software" | Management | Traditional software development approaches report based on stage gate milestones and intermediary deliverables of documents (eg we completed this set of documents therefore we are X% complete). The problem with this approach is that you are reporting progress when no software is running. Worse because you have increasingly detailed planning based on existing assumptions, your plan moves further and further away from reality. The agile approach is to only report progress when some (even the tiniest sliver of the) functionality is working and potentially available to the user. And as Dantar P. Oosterwal says “There was in fact no correlation between exiting phase gates on time and project success. The data suggested the inverse was true."|
-| "Bring project back on plan" | "Plan will evolve based on what we know" | Management | Lets face it, plan was put together when we knew the least about the project we were undertaking so it is safe to assume the plan is flawed. See also [[blog:how_can_we_understand_the_real_value_of_fast_feedback_and_deciding_late|How Can We Understand the Real Value of Fast Feedback and Deciding Late?]] and [[blog:why_doesn_t_traditional_project_management_work_for_software_projects|Why Doesn't Traditional Project Management Work For Software Projects?]] |+| "Bring project back on plan" | "Plan will evolve based on what we know" | Management | Lets face it, plan was put together when we knew the least about the project we were undertaking so it is safe to assume the plan is flawed. See also [[how_can_we_understand_the_real_value_of_fast_feedback_and_deciding_late|How Can We Understand the Real Value of Fast Feedback and Deciding Late?]] and [[why_doesn_t_traditional_project_management_work_for_software_projects|Why Doesn't Traditional Project Management Work For Software Projects?]] |
 | "Test quality into the product" | "Build a quality product" | Management | Quality is not something you achieve by a separate test phase. Everyone is responsible for doing quality work - quality first! In particular building in quality means that speed up the development process and creates a viable platform for future enhancements. | | "Test quality into the product" | "Build a quality product" | Management | Quality is not something you achieve by a separate test phase. Everyone is responsible for doing quality work - quality first! In particular building in quality means that speed up the development process and creates a viable platform for future enhancements. |
 | "Get 'r done" | "Software craftsmanship" | Management | With Agile you work to ensure a sustainable pace and build software to a high quality standard using modern development approaches. We are professionals and have professional standards that we meet for our work. We maintain those standards for all work. | | "Get 'r done" | "Software craftsmanship" | Management | With Agile you work to ensure a sustainable pace and build software to a high quality standard using modern development approaches. We are professionals and have professional standards that we meet for our work. We maintain those standards for all work. |
 | "Highest paid person makes the decisions" | "Decisions pushed to lowest level in the organization" | Management | This implies that the information as well as the authority to make those decisions is at the lowest level as well. Not all decisions are pushed down. Decisions that are made infrequently, or where there is benefit in centralizing (eg tool selection) might be candidates for higher decision levels. In general though, as Don Reinertsen says “Any inefficiency of decentralization costs less than the value of faster response time.”| | "Highest paid person makes the decisions" | "Decisions pushed to lowest level in the organization" | Management | This implies that the information as well as the authority to make those decisions is at the lowest level as well. Not all decisions are pushed down. Decisions that are made infrequently, or where there is benefit in centralizing (eg tool selection) might be candidates for higher decision levels. In general though, as Don Reinertsen says “Any inefficiency of decentralization costs less than the value of faster response time.”|
 | "Project Manager is the 'single wring-able neck'" | "Team is accountable" | Management | This goes with the accountability discussion. | | "Project Manager is the 'single wring-able neck'" | "Team is accountable" | Management | This goes with the accountability discussion. |
-| "Make decisions early" | "Make decisions at last responsible moment" | Management | Agile approach is to make sure when the latest time it is to make a decision so we can leverage information and learning before that time. Traditional approach often forces decisions when you do not have all the information and so you end up with inflexible and potentially inappropriate solutions. See also [[blog:how_can_we_understand_the_real_value_of_fast_feedback_and_deciding_late|How Can We Understand the Real Value of Fast Feedback and Deciding Late?]]|+| "Make decisions early" | "Make decisions at last responsible moment" | Management | Agile approach is to make sure when the latest time it is to make a decision so we can leverage information and learning before that time. Traditional approach often forces decisions when you do not have all the information and so you end up with inflexible and potentially inappropriate solutions. See also [[how_can_we_understand_the_real_value_of_fast_feedback_and_deciding_late|How Can We Understand the Real Value of Fast Feedback and Deciding Late?]]|
 | "FTE" | "Team" | Management | In agile the "unit of execution" is the Team. This idea implies that we no longer try to assign bits of people to projects, but rather bring work to high performance teams. The "team" needs to be treated as a corporate asset - something the organization has developed to high performance that we want to leverage. Note that this concept will effect hiring decision, performance appraisal, job descriptions and incentive plans. It will also effect physical layout of offices as face-to-face communication is the most effective mechanism of communication for a team. Another way to think about this is ... | | "FTE" | "Team" | Management | In agile the "unit of execution" is the Team. This idea implies that we no longer try to assign bits of people to projects, but rather bring work to high performance teams. The "team" needs to be treated as a corporate asset - something the organization has developed to high performance that we want to leverage. Note that this concept will effect hiring decision, performance appraisal, job descriptions and incentive plans. It will also effect physical layout of offices as face-to-face communication is the most effective mechanism of communication for a team. Another way to think about this is ... |
 | "Assign (bring) people to the work" | "Bring work to the team" | Management | Once you have high-performing teams in place it is better to leverage this high performance by bringing new work to the team, rather than thinking we can select the optimum group of people for the next task / project. Note that this removes the need to the great big "capacity planning" worksheet, where you allocate % time of FTE's to projects / tasks. | | "Assign (bring) people to the work" | "Bring work to the team" | Management | Once you have high-performing teams in place it is better to leverage this high performance by bringing new work to the team, rather than thinking we can select the optimum group of people for the next task / project. Note that this removes the need to the great big "capacity planning" worksheet, where you allocate % time of FTE's to projects / tasks. |
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 | "Late learning" | "Early learning" | Management | Projects come in late in traditional world because we find our late (i.e. when handed over to QA) that we have a problem with the project. With Agile, you might not like what you see, but at least you'll see it early, in time to do something about it. | | "Late learning" | "Early learning" | Management | Projects come in late in traditional world because we find our late (i.e. when handed over to QA) that we have a problem with the project. With Agile, you might not like what you see, but at least you'll see it early, in time to do something about it. |
 | "Sequential, serial development" | "Iterative and incremental development" | Management | For Agile you use a "lego" approach to building software. Try something. If it doesn't work out, try something else. If it works out, build on what you have. | | "Sequential, serial development" | "Iterative and incremental development" | Management | For Agile you use a "lego" approach to building software. Try something. If it doesn't work out, try something else. If it works out, build on what you have. |
-| "Dependency management" | "Aggressive removal of dependencies" | Management | This starts with setting up teams that are focused on developing features (not components) so that functionality can be developed without creating a dependency management nightmare, but goes much further than this (see [[blog:why_should_we_work_harder_to_eliminate_the_effect_of_dependencies|Why Should We Work Harder to Eliminate the Effect of Dependencies?]] for more information). |+| "Dependency management" | "Aggressive removal of dependencies" | Management | This starts with setting up teams that are focused on developing features (not components) so that functionality can be developed without creating a dependency management nightmare, but goes much further than this (see [[why_should_we_work_harder_to_eliminate_the_effect_of_dependencies|Why Should We Work Harder to Eliminate the Effect of Dependencies?]] for more information). |
 | "Compliance" | "Engagement" | Management | Management model aimed at having engaged people, as engaged people make better decisions, are more responsive and produce more. | | "Compliance" | "Engagement" | Management | Management model aimed at having engaged people, as engaged people make better decisions, are more responsive and produce more. |
 | "Cost focus" | "Value focus" | Management | Traditional model is based on cost accounting with little discussion of the value we get as a result of this. Agile changes model to focus on value delivery, where value, as in "lean" is defined by "what the customer sees as valuable". Also most agile approaches improve ability of team to focus. | | "Cost focus" | "Value focus" | Management | Traditional model is based on cost accounting with little discussion of the value we get as a result of this. Agile changes model to focus on value delivery, where value, as in "lean" is defined by "what the customer sees as valuable". Also most agile approaches improve ability of team to focus. |
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